亚博app下载官网:Global emissions of greenhouse gases jumped 2.3 percent in 2013 to record levels, scientists reported Sunday, in the latest indication that the world remains far off track in its efforts to control global warming.科学家周日回应,2013年,全球温室气体排放量减少了2.3%,超过历史新纪录。这个近期迹象指出,在掌控全球气候变化方面,国际社会的希望仍远远不够。The emissions growth last year was a bit slower than the average growth rate of 2.5 percent over the past decade, and much of the dip was caused by an economic slowdown in China, which is the worlds single largest source of emissions. It may take an additional year or two to know if China has turned a corner toward slower emissions growth, or if the runaway pace of recent years will resume.排放量去年的增幅比过去十年中2.5%的平均值增长率略高于,而且排放量增幅之所以上升,相当大程度上是由中国经济快速增长上升所引发的。


In the United States, emissions rose 2.9 percent, after declining in recent years.美国的排放量在经过了最近几年的持续上升后,提升了2.9%。The new numbers, reported by a tracking initiative called the Global Carbon Project and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, came on the eve of a United Nations summit meeting meant to harness fresh political ambition in tackling climate change. Scientists said the figures showed that vastly greater efforts would be needed to get long-term global warming within tolerable limits.这些新的数据是由一个叫作全球碳计划(Global Carbon Project)的跟踪项目递交的,公开发表在了期刊《大自然·地球科学》(Nature Geoscience)上。数据发布之际,正是联合国(United Nations)一次峰会开会前夕。此次峰会意图唤起新的政治心愿来解决问题气候变化问题。

科学家说道,这些数据指出,如果要把长年的全球气候变化问题掌控在可以忍受的范围内,还必须作出很大的希望。You can no longer have some countries go first and others come in later, because there is no more time, said Glen P. Peters, a scientist at the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research in Oslo, who helped compile the new numbers. It needs to be all hands on deck now.“无法再行采行某些国家再行行动,其他国家随后行动的策略,因为时间不多了,”奥斯陆国际气候与环境研究中心(Center for International Climate and Environmental Research)的科学家格伦·P·彼得斯(Glen P. Peters)说道。他也参予了这些新的数据的编成。

“现在必须大家齐心协力。”Yet expectations for the summit meeting on Tuesday are low, with no sign of any political breakthrough that would lead to more ambitious efforts. Scientists say emissions must peak within the next few years, and then begin to decline, if the world is to have any hope of keeping global warming to an upper limit that countries agreed on five years ago. So far, no plans are in place that would come close to achieving that.不过,人们并没对周二的峰会抱有过低希望,因为没任何迹象指出,各国能在政治上构建突破,进而采行更加有力的措施。科学家回应,要想要如愿以偿把全球气候变化掌控在各国五年前一致同意的下限,那么未来几年里,就必需挽回排放量下降的势头。现有的所有方案,与构建这一目标都相距甚远。

Emissions have been falling gradually in recent years in most of the developed countries, in part because of economic weakness but also because of strengthening climate policies. Emissions in the 28-nation European Union fell 1.8 percent in 2013, despite increases in coal consumption in a few countries, including Germany and Poland. Emissions decreased sharply in Britain, Italy and Spain.近年来,大多数发达国家的排放量仍然在逐步上升,这部分是因为萧条的经济形势,同时也是因为日益强化的气候政策。2013年,由28个国家构成的欧洲联盟(European Union)的排放量上升了1.8%,虽然德国和波兰等几个国家的耗煤量经常出现减少。英国、意大利和西班牙的排放量明显上升。

United States emissions had been declining because of increased burning of natural gas in power generation, which emits less carbon dioxide for each unit of energy than does coal. But the nation reported an increase in 2013 as coal regained some market share. If that trend continues, it could prove to be a challenge for the Obama administration as it seeks to institute tighter policies on greenhouse gases.美国的排放量仍然在减少,这是因为发电过程中自燃天然气的比例减少了;与煤炭比起,燃气发电每单位能量所产生的二氧化碳更加较少。但美国通报称之为,2013年的排放量有所增加,因为煤炭新的取得了一些市场份额。如果这种趋势持续下去,它可能会沦为奥巴马政府的一个挑战,因为奥巴马政府正试图制订更加严苛的温室气体政策。For years, slow emissions declines in the West have 亚博Appbeen swamped by rising emissions in the East, and the trend continued in 2013. Chinas emissions grew 4.2 percent and Indias 5.1 percent. Both countries have been constructing coal-burning power plants at a breakneck pace.多年来,西方排放量的较慢增加,被东方排放量的日益减少所抵销。



China is spending heavily on renewable and nuclear energy as it tries to slow the growth of coal, but despite those efforts it has become by far the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Its emissions of 10 billion tons a year of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacturing are almost twice those of the United States, though emissions per person are still far higher in the United States.为了尝试遏止煤炭消耗量的快速增长,中国正在可再生能源和核能领域投放巨资,但尽管代价了这些希望,中国迄今为止仍然是仅次于的温室气体废气国。中国每年因化石燃料自燃和水泥生产废气100亿吨二氧化碳,完全是美国的两倍,但美国的人均排放量仍然相比之下低于中国。

China is really in a tough position, Dr. Peters said. Emissions have grown so much in the last 10 years or so that no matter how you look at China, it has an immense task.“中国的处境知道很艰苦,”彼得斯博士说道。“在过去大约十年时间里,排放量减少如此之慢,不管怎么看来中国,它的任务都很艰难。”In a separate report in early September, the World Meteorological Organization said the level of carbon dioxide in the air in 2013 was 42 percent above the level that prevailed before the Industrial Revolution. Other important greenhouse gases have gone up as well, with methane increasing 153 percent from the preindustrial level and nitrous oxide by 21 percent.在9月初公布的另一份报告中,世界气象组织(World Meteorological Organization)称之为,2013年大气中的二氧化碳水平,比工业革命之前的广泛水平高达42%。其他最重要的温室气体含量也有所增加,与前工业化时代水平比起,甲烷减少了153%,一氧化二氮减少了21%。


The increase of these and other gases from human activity has caused the planet to warm by about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since the preindustrial era, which is causing land ice to melt all over the world. The oceans are rising at what appears to be an accelerating pace, and heat waves and torrential rains are intensifying.人类活动导致的这些气体及其他气体的减少,造成地球温度与前工业化时代比起,下降了约1.5华氏度(约合0.8摄氏度),导致全球陆冰融化。海平面下降的速度或许正在减缓,热浪和暴雨天气更加多。The nations of the world have agreed to try to limit the warming to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, which would require that emissions slow down and then largely stop in the next 30 years or so. If they continue on their present course through the century, scientists say, the earth could warm by as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit above the preindustrial level, which would likely be incompatible with human civilization in its current form.世界各国表示同意将地球加剧掌控在3.6华氏度以内,这必须在未来约30年里,诱导温室气体废气,之后基本暂停废气。